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A woman created a ‘health resume’ to bring to her doctor’s appointments, and doctors think it’s genius

A woman created a ‘health resume’ to bring to her doctor’s appointments, and doctors think it’s genius

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“I have PTSD, and having this all presented like this makes me feel safer about seeing doctors,” Shannon Dingle wrote.
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Stuart Jenner/ Shutterstock
  • On Tuesday, writer and mom Shannon Dingle shared a tweet that showed the “health resume” she created.
  • Dingle said the resume, which includes her medical history and other information, helped quell her anxiety about forgetting important health information at doctor’s visits.
  • Doctors and fellow patients responded to the tweet saying they loved the idea and wished more people had health resumes.
  • Visit INSIDER’s homepage for more.

When you think of a resume, you likely think of a piece of paper that outlines your work history. But a North Carolina writer and mom of six named Shannon Dingle recently reimagined the resume as a health document that could make your next trip to the doctor less stressful.

On Tuesday, Dingle, shared a tweet with an image of her “health resume,” a document she created to outline her medical history (including previous surgeries and diagnoses), health and treatment goals, and a bit about her family and personal life. Dingle created the document using a standard Microsoft Word resume template.

“This is a new thing I’m doing with medical appointments: organizing all my info in one place and demanding to be seen as a full person. I’ll let you know how it goes,” Dingle wrote in the tweet.

Later that day, Dingle shared an update that her doctor appreciated her health resume. Other doctors chimed in too, tweeting to Dingle that they though her concept was smart and helpful for patients and health care providers alike.

“I’m a therapist and this will be a great suggestion for when I have clients with severe PTSD,” or post-traumatic stress disorder, one person said. Dingle replied, saying her own PTSD was a reason she decided to create the document in the first place. Her personal website and Twitter profile say she’s a sex trafficking survivor.

Read more: The best hospitals in the US, ranked

“That’s one of the reasons it works so well for me. I have PTSD, and having this all presented like this makes me feel safer about seeing doctors,” Dingle wrote. She added that the document prevents her from accidentally forgetting crucial or detailed information she wants to share during her appointments.

Another doctor who works in an emergency room said Dingle’s idea is a “dream come true” because it helps doctors better treat those with complex health problems.

“And when your job is easier, our treatment can be easier! It’s beneficial all around,” Dingle replied.

Others told Dingle that as patients, they would be using her health resume idea themselves to have better and more productive visits to the doctor.

“I like the idea. My ‘history’ folder looks like War & Peace. The resume version might be more useful for new or not often visited providers,” one woman wrote.

Dingle told followers that she plans to soon share the template she used, plus how she sectioned off each portion of her resume to help her doctors better understand her medical history.

Dispensed: A record-breaking approval, what it’s like to work in healthcare, and a call for nominations

Dispensed: A record-breaking approval, what it’s like to work in healthcare, and a call for nominations

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Joe Raedle/Getty Images

Hello,

Hope you all had a restful start to your summer!

Before we kick into the stories that kept us busy this week, I wanted to put out a call for nominations. This summer, the Business Insider healthcare team will be pulling together an “under 40” list, building on the biotech one we did in 2017 and the health tech one we did in 2018.

This time, given the expansion in our coverage, we’re looking broadly to feature folks who are under 40 and who are transforming healthcare.

We’re interested in featuring rising leaders and entrepreneurs as well as researchers and clinicians, from startups and established firms. Nominees should be able to show how their work is improving healthcare.

So send us your up-and-comers, your rockstars, the new folks on your team that you already know have ideas that will take them places.

You can find the form for nominations here. The deadline for submissions is June 19.

Questions? Hit us up at healthcare@businessinsider.com. Can’t wait to sift through all the great work!

Are you new to our newsletter? You can sign up for Dispensed here.

First, after I sent out last week’s newsletter, the FDA bestowed an approval on the first gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy, a treatment called Zolgensma that’s made by Novartis. My colleague Emma Court had the inside story on the record-breaking price tag.

A top executive at Swiss drug giant Novartis told us the inside story of the $2.1 million price tag for the most expensive drug in the world

  • The Food and Drug Administration just approved a cutting-edge new treatment from the Swiss drug giant Novartis for a rare genetic disease called spinal muscular atrophy. Priced at $2.1 million, it is the world’s most expensive drug.
  • We spoke with Dave Lennon, the head of the Novartis unit that makes the drug, about how the drugmaker decided on its price tag.
  • Lennon acknowledged the “sticker shock” of this price point but said that because of how expensive this disease was to treat, Zolgensma was actually cost-effective for the US health system.

doctor patient

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Joe Raedle/Getty Images

What it’s like to work in healthcare

This week was filled with stories surrounding pay at various healthcare companies. To start, Emma and I looked through regulatory filings to find out what the typical employee at companies like CVS Health, Walgreens, and big biotechs like Biogen and Gilead make. We found a whole lot of variance.

Relatedly, with the help of some great data compiled by our friends at BioPharma Dive I pulled together the 10 biotech companies with the highest median pay in 2018. For some places (namely, Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, which had 15 employees in 2018), the typical pay is as high as $800,000. Check out the rest of the top 10 here.

Elsewhere in healthcare, doctors are burning out twice as fast as other workers. It’s a problem that’s costing the US $4.6 billion each year. Given the World Health Organization’s recent classification of “burnout” as a medical condition, it’s important to think about the physical – as well as economic – toll healthcare professionals are taking on due to being overworked.

Relatedly, Emma and our colleagues on our strategy team mapped out how much everyone makes in a hospital makes, from nurses to surgeons.

Today, the FDA is discussing CBD and other cannabis products at an all-day event. Erin Brodwin has a refresher on what we know (and don’t know) about what CBD does to our body.

Wall Street thinks CBD could be a $16 billion industry by 2025. Here’s what the cannabis compound does to your brain and body.

  • Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a compound in cannabis that doesn’t get you high. It’s surging in popularity, with sellers touting a variety of wellness benefits.
  • CBD is also the active ingredient in an epilepsy drug called Epidiolex.
  • Wall Street thinks the CBD industry could be worth $16 billion by 2025, but that may depend on how federal regulators decide to police it. A hearing on the matter is scheduled for Friday.
  • Here’s what we know about the science of CBD, from its clinical applications to its limitations.

Last week, I sat down with Andreessen Horowitz’s Jorge Conde, and he laid out for me what it’ll take to build a big biotech company that doesn’t serve as simply an acquisition target for pharmaceutical companies looking to beef up their pipelines.

Andreessen Horowitz is famous for backing household names like Facebook and Lyft. Here’s why it thinks it can do the same in biotech.

  • The Andreessen Horowitz general partner Jorge Conde is hoping to invest in biotechs that don’t quickly become acquisition targets for a pharma giant.
  • It’s a counterintuitive idea in an industry that is largely fueled by smaller biotechs getting acquired by large companies looking for the next blockbuster drugs.
  • Instead, Conde is hoping to build “large, iconic companies, much like what’s happened on the technology side,” he said at CNBC’s Healthy Returns conference in New York last week.

And on Thursday, the CEO and chief financial officer at UnitedHealth Group laid out how the healthcare giant plans to turn medical services into a $100 billion business by 2028.

UnitedHealth is already the biggest US health insurer. Now it wants to make going to the doctor its next $100 billion business.

  • UnitedHealth Group expects its healthcare delivery business OptumCare to be a $100 billion-a-year business by 2028.
  • The OptumCare business already employs or works with 38,000 doctors.
  • At the Bernstein Strategic Decisions Conference, analyst Lance Wilkes asked UnitedHealth Group executives how the company plans to get there.
  • The executives said the plan includes building upon the footprint the company established over the last decade.

That’s all for this week! As always, tips? Thoughts on today’s FDA hearing or on Zolgensma’s price tag? You can find me at lramsey@BusinessInsider.com or the whole team at healthcare@businessinsider.com.

And don’t forget to nominate great folks for our leaders under 40 transforming healthcare list!

– Lydia

How often you should be going to 8 different types of doctors

How often you should be going to 8 different types of doctors

You should see the eye doctor fairly often.

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You should see the eye doctor fairly often.
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Sergei SavostyanovTASS via Getty Images
  • Doctor’s visits are necessary to stay informed about your health.
  • Oftentimes people only go to the doctor when something is wrong.
  • Some doctors should be seen on an as-needed basis, while others recommend annual visits.
  • Visit INSIDER’s homepage for more stories.

Trips to the doctor are necessary to keep you healthy. While some doctors suggest only making appointments on an as-needed basis, others advise getting a standard check-up at least once per year.

To find out how often should you go to different specialties of medical specialists, INSIDER reached out to a few different experts in the space for clarification. Here’s what you need to know.

It’s worth noting that these can vary based on many different factors, so it’s best to ask your physician for individual advice.

Make an appointment with your general physician at least twice per year for a standard check up and flu shot

Dr. Niket Sonpal, a gastroenterologist and an internist in NYC, told INSIDER that appointments with a general physician can be made on an as-needed basis, but visits for your standard physical and annual flu shot should be made every year.

“If you are healthy and have no chronic conditions then once a year for an annual physical to the internist and once a year for your flu shot is at least the minimum,” Sonpal said. “If it has been a few years since your last physical, then you may need some follows ups after your first new visit.”

The Vision Council recommends patients get eye exams annually

A representative from The Vision Council told INSIDER that adults and children should receive a comprehensive eye exam from an optometrist (eye doctor) once per year. However if you start experiencing severe discomfort in or around the eye area, such as blurriness, dryness, itching, or pain, you should see an optometrist immediately for diagnosis.

People with vaginas should see their OBGYN at least once per year for a well visit

Dr. Jessica Shepherd, women’s health expert, OBGYN and U by Kotex partner told INSIDER that people with vaginas should be visiting their OBGYN at least once annually for a general checkup that may include a PAP smear, STI check, and birth control discussion. Pregnant people will be required to make monthly to weekly appointments, depending on which trimester they’re in.

How often you visit a gastroenterologist will depend on your age and the severity of your symptoms

Sonpal told INSIDER a general rule of thumb for visiting a gastroenterologist is that everyone between the ages of 45 through 50 should be evaluated and schedule a colonoscopy. Those who have a family history of polyps or colon cancer should make an appointment earlier in life.

Otherwise Sonpal said the only time you should be making an appointment with a GI is “when your symptoms and medical problems require special attention from a digestive and liver specialist.”

How often you go to the dermatologist will depend on your diagnosis

If you don’t have specific skin concerns, or a history of skin cancer, NYC Dermatologist Dr. Hadley King told INSIDER “an annual total body skin exam is sufficient.” Otherwise how often you visit a dermatologist will depend on your diagnosis.

For example if you have had a non-melanoma skin cancer (a type of skin cancer that forms in the cells of the skin), King advised seeing your dermatologist for a total body skin exam every six months. If you have had a melanoma cancer (a type of skin cancer that forms in melanin-forming cells), depending on how recent the diagnosis was, King said your dermatologist might require you to undergo a total body skin exam every three months.

Dermatologist appointments can likely be yearly.

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Dermatologist appointments can likely be yearly.
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Shutterstock

Patients with ongoing skin issues like acne, rosacea, psoriasis, or eczema, she adds, should see their dermatologist either every month, or every few months after the initial diagnosis to make sure the condition is under control.

Make an appointment with your urologist as soon as symptoms flare up

Patients should make appointments with their urologist on an as-needed basis. During an interview with INSIDER, Anika Ackerman, a urologist based in Morristown, New Jersey, explained that the frequency of urologist visits depend on a few key details such as age and medical history.

“For men 50 or older, who are doing yearly prostate cancer screening, once per year is recommended,” Ackerman said, adding that patients with kidney stones should follow up with their urologists once per year as well.

“For patients with recurrent UTI,” she continued, “the interval can be quite variable and depends on their symptoms and UTI frequency.”

Dentist appointments should be made at least one to two times per year

Because your dental health reflects your oral health habits, the American Dental Association (ADA) doesn’t recommend one set number of regular dentist visits you’re required to make in a year. The ADA does, however, recommended you make an appointment with your dentist at least one to two times per year to get a thorough cleaning, take x-rays, and track your overall dental health to make sure you’re not at risk for oral cancer, or any other diseases.

However in addition to regular checkups and cleaning appointments, Dr. Jason Popper of Popper Dental in New York told INSIDER it’s extremely important to schedule an appointment with your dentist “as soon as you notice changes in your mouth, especially when there is pain associated.”

Additionally if patients who are diagnosed with diabetes, cancer, are pregnant, or are regular smokers are considered to be at “high risk” for experiencing dental issues. Under these circumstances, Popper said dentists will advise you as to how often you should be coming in for check ups.

How often you see an allergist depends on the type of allergies you’ve been diagnosed with

Dr. Tania Elliott, an allergist and Flonase spokesperson, told INSIDER that depending on the type of allergies you have, the severity of your symptoms, as well as the kind of treatments you’re receiving/medication you’re on, you might be required to visit an allergist anywhere from once a week, to once per year.

For example patients who experience food allergies should schedule annual check-ins to evaluate their symptoms, check the expiration date on their EpiPen, and determine whether or not they’ve grown out of your allergy, Elliot explained. Asthma patients, on the other hand, are required to undergo an evaluation every six to 12 weeks to receive therapy, and/or check in to ensure their symptoms aren’t interfering with everyday life.

How often you see the allergist can vary, too.

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How often you see the allergist can vary, too.
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BSIP/UIG via Getty Images

Patients with seasonal allergies should visit the doctor twice a year – two weeks before your allergy season kicks off to receive medication, and four to six weeks into the season to evaluate your symptoms, Elliot said. However if your allergies require you to get allergy shots, patients are required to come into the office for injections weekly for the first six months of therapy “to build up the amount of allergen you are given,” Elliot explained. Thereafter, she continued, you receive shots every month for anywhere between two to five years.

Are medical schools socially responsible?

Are medical schools socially responsible?

On April 11, 2019, Health Minister Datuk Seri Dr Dzulkefly Ahmad told the Dewan Rakyat that only about 70% of new doctors complete their housemenship within two years. The remainder receive an extension on their housemenship posts, causing a backlog and decreasing the number of available training posts for the new, incoming housemen.

This is a cause for concern. It not only raises questions about the quality of the medical graduates, but also medical education itself and the social accountability of medical schools.

Am often-asked question is whether medical schools are producing doctors “fit for purpose”. Should medical schools not be held accountable when so many graduates are unprepared for housemenship? What is the value being provided for the large amounts of public and private funds expended in medical education?

Social responsibilities

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defined the social accountability of medical schools in 1995 as “the obligation to direct their education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community, region and/or nation they have a mandate to serve.

“The priority health concerns are to be identified jointly by governments, healthcare organisations, health professionals and the public.”

The Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Medical Schools in 2010 identified health needs and the effects of medical schools on those needs. These ten areas are:

• An anticipation of society’s health challenges and needs.
• The creation of relationships to act efficiently.
• The spectrum of health workforce required and the doctor’s expected role and competencies.
• The fostering of outcome-based education.
• The creation of responsive and responsible governance of the medical school.
• The refining of the scope of standards, research and service delivery.
• The support for continuous quality improvement in education, research and service delivery.
• The establishment of mandated mechanisms for accreditation.
• The balancing of global principles with context specificity, and
• Defining the role of society.

The terms “socially responsible”, “socially responsive” and “socially accountable” are used interchangeably, but have different meanings.

Charles Boelen and colleagues explained the distinctions in a 2012 paper published in the e-journal Education for Health as follows: “A socially responsible medical school is one that is committed to what faculty intuitively considers as the welfare of society.

“The intention to produce ‘good practitioners’ is based on an implicit identification of society’s health needs. A socially responsive medical school is one that responds to society’s welfare by directing its education, research and service activities towards explicitly identified health priorities in society.

“In this case, the faculty intends to produce graduates possessing specific competencies to address peoples’ health concerns, such as the ones covered under the notion of ‘professionalism’.

“The socially accountable medical school goes one step beyond as it is not only taking specific actions through its education, research and service activities to meet the priority health needs of society, but also working collaboratively with governments, health service organisations, and the public to positively impact people’s health and being able to demonstrate this by providing evidence that its work is relevant, of high quality, equitable (and) cost-effective.

“As far as the quality of its graduates is concerned, its aim is to produce change agents with capacity to work well on health determinants and contribute to adapting the health system.”

Examples to illustrate the differences were also given in the paper. The socially responsible medical school is one that offers courses that focus on the determinants of poverty and health disparities.

The socially responsive medical school engages its students throughout the course in community-based activities to ensure that all students acquire well-defined competencies to care for the most vulnerable.

The socially accountable medical school goes beyond the above commitments, is aware of the health system’s challenges and positions itself as an important actor to influence health policies through active collaboration with key stakeholders.

Medical school, medical education, medical students, medical graduates, quality of medical education, quality of medical students, quality of doctors, social responsibility, social accountability, healthcare, Teddy Mobile Clinic, clinic for homeless, Star2.com

A socially-responsive medical school will ensure its students experience community-based activities that teaches them to care for the vulnerable in society, like the doctor in this filepic does voluntarily for the homeless in Kuala Lumpur.

Evaluating excellence

All medical schools claim excellence in their visions and missions. But are the words matched with deeds? Can each and every medical school state publicly whether they are socially responsible, socially responsive or socially accountable, and their reasons for stating so?

While economics and financials are important for private medical schools, should the public good not be equally important? How is the profit imperative reconciled with the public good? Should the quality of students who enter medical school matter?

What about the quantity and quality of the teaching staff, as they are role models for students?

Does the quality of medical education focus on the core educational needs of a doctor, providing him with the knowledge, attitude and skills necessary to address public health and clinical challenges today and tomorrow?

The boards (or councils), deans and teaching staff of universities or university colleges that have medical schools have a duty to society to address these issues, and if they have not, it is time to get started.

It is in the interest of every medical school to produce graduates “fit for purpose” for its long-term sustainability. Students today are not like those of yesteryear as they share their experiences online.

If medical schools are not up to the mark, their enrolments will decrease with time, which some schools are already experiencing. Mergers, acquisitions and closures are not just on the horizon, but a stark reality today.

Have regulators assessed which Malaysian medical schools are socially responsible, socially responsive or socially accountable? If they have, should it not be publicised so that potential medical students and their parents will have an opportunity to make informed choices? If not, it is time to get started.

How robust is the accreditation process for Malaysian medical schools? Has there been an independent evaluation of the utility of accreditation? If so, should the report not be made available to all stakeholders? If not, it is time to get started.

The International Federation of Medical Students Associations’ position is that medical students should be advocates for social accountability as it “is an opportunity to contribute to the building of best medical education practices and improving the health of our communities and countries”.

Towards this end, they have come up with a simple toolkit to assess the social accountability of individual medical schools, as well as identify their problems and opportunities for improvement.

Medical school, medical education, medical students, medical graduates, quality of medical education, quality of medical students, quality of doctors, social responsibility, social accountability, healthcare, hospital, Star2.com

Only about 70% of medical graduates complete their housemenship on time, causing a reduction in the number of available housemen posts for the next batch of medical graduates.

Take home message

The obsession with quantity has to cease. The public interest is better served by fewer good quality doctors than large quantities who are deficient in knowledge, skills and attitudes. The statements from Medicine’s icons are just as relevant today as in their times.

Hippocrates (460-377 BC) stated: “When-ever a doctor cannot do good, he must be kept from doing harm.” Avicenna (AD 980-1037) said: “An ignorant doctor is the aide-de-camp of death.” And Sir William Osler (AD 1849-1919) said: “The best preparation for tomorrow is to do today’s work superbly well.”

Dr Milton Lum is a past president of the Federation of Private Medical Practitioners Associations and the Malaysian Medical Association. The views expressed do not represent that of organisations that the writer is associated with. The information provided is for educational and communication purposes only and it should not be construed as personal medical advice. Information published in this article is not intended to replace, supplant or augment a consultation with a health professional regarding the reader’s own medical care. The Star disclaims all responsibility for any losses, damage to property or personal injury suffered directly or indirectly from reliance on such information.
‘If you keep working, you will die’: London bankers in their 20s and 30s are having more heart attacks, doctors say

‘If you keep working, you will die’: London bankers in their 20s and 30s are having more heart attacks, doctors say

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REUTERS/Andrew Burton
  • Bankers in their 20s and 30s are being admitted to the hospital more frequently with cardiac conditions and heart attacks, cardiologists in the UK told Business Insider.
  • One doctor estimated he’s seen a 10% rise in bankers under 30 being admitted to the hospital in the last decade.
  • One former banker shared her experience with Business Insider in which she suffered a cardiac event in her early-20’s after frequently working until 4 a.m.
  • This all comes even as big banks are trying to reduce stress for junior employees.

As a second-year analyst at a major European bank, Laura frequently worked until 4 a.m., suffered a cardiac event, and was hospitalized three times in two years. She said she was told by doctors “if you keep working, you will die.”

Laura isn’t the finance professional’s real name. She asked Business Insider not to name her or the bank for fear of retribution. In describing her time at the bank, she said she worked day and night, and was stopped from taking sick days off even after getting a throat infection which eventually spread to her heart in a case of infective endocarditis.

In the early hours one Monday morning in 2015, she shot up in bed with pain in her chest. “I was having basically a heart attack,” she said. She previously had good health and didn’t take drugs.

She left the bank soon after.

“My husband told me to get out [saying] ‘the money’s not worth it,’” she said.

Young bankers are facing health issues

Young bankers in their 20’s and 30’s are being admitted to the hospital more frequently with heart conditions and heart attacks, cardiologists in the UK told Business Insider

Dr. Arjun Ghosh, a consultant cardiologist at Barts Heart Centre in London estimated that in the last decade, he’s seen a 10% rise in heart attacks among bankers under the age of 30. Around one in ten of his patients in this age range work in finance.

This is happening even as banks have put in measures to reduce the workload and stress of their junior staff, such as requiring Saturdays be taken off, following the death of a Bank of America intern in 2013.

Despite the recent efforts of big banks to reduce the working hours of their employees, Dr. Syed Ahsan, a cardiologist with a clinic in Canary Wharf, said he hasn’t seen evidence of change.

“In investment banking, I think whatever they [the banks] say… the hours and the pressure that is put on these guys is huge. So as much as they may be doing things to improve – I don’t think it’s changed at all,” he said.

To be sure, the increase in heart attacks among young bankers reflects similar trends in the population at large, the cardiologists say, although there hasn’t yet been formal research published to reflect this.

“It’s so common now – young people getting a heart attack. This is common enough not to be shocking… It’s not ‘Oh my god, they’re only 25!’,” Dr. Ahmed Elghamaz, a consultant cardiologist at London North West University Hospital said. “We are not shocked anymore.”

The increase is perhaps a result of an unhealthy, busy lifestyle with people working longer hours then they have in the past, Dr. Elghamaz said.

Doctors say they regularly see young bankers with two types of heart conditions – cardiac arrhythmia and myocarditis, both of which can lead to a fatal heart attack and can be made more likely by excessive work, stress, and drug use.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart, which can be caused by stress or a viral infection that spreads through the body eventually infecting the heart, and arrhythmia is an uneven heart rhythm that can be brought on by tension and drug use.

The most common of the two heart conditions in bankers under 30 is myocarditis, Business Insider was told, and some of the cardiologists said they see it most in people that have a weakened immune system due to fatigue and unhealthy living.

The Whitehall Study, conducted by University College London’s Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, followed more than 10,000 British civil servants since the mid-1980s and showed that workers under 50 who were chronically stressed were 68% more likely to suffer a heart attack or chest pain.

There’s a culture of drug taking

A culture of drug taking in corporate environments also plays a factor.

Dr. Ashan said he recently treated a banker with heart problems in his late-20s. “He was using increasing amounts of cocaine working 12 to 14 hour a day, barely sleeping and he came in with episodes of blacking out and palpitations,” he said.

Trends that the three cardiologists shared with BI are anecdotal, but they called for more research to be done into cardiac conditions in young people, and their relationship to stress and the work environment.

Professor Alexandra Michel, a scholar in organizational and behavioral research at the University of Pennsylvania, has studied the health and psychology of investment bankers for over 15 years.

In one piece of research published in 2012 by Administrative Science Quarterly, she followed four groups of investment bankers at two different banks from the start of their careers and tracked their progression over 10 years. At their fourth year, every banker involved in the study had developed a mental or physical health problem.

“Not only are there are new types of illnesses, many of them having to do with burn-out, but also illness that people typically get later in life, they now get earlier in life. And so I’m observing in these young bankers a whole cluster of health issues,” Michel told Business Insider.

The work practices on Wall Street, which involve a super fast-paced environment in which employees are tied to their electronic devices 24/7, are spreading to other industries as well. This may bring about a whole new set of health issues to workers outside finance, Michel said.

The doctors called for more research to be done and action to be taken.

“There’s got to be more research into the direct impact of working conditions, working hours, work stress and how that correlates with cardiac events,” Dr. Ashan said.

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