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3 huge new studies of more than half a million people are casting major doubts on the keto diet

3 huge new studies of more than half a million people are casting major doubts on the keto diet

Nutritionists are zeroing in on healthy, whole foods that come mainly from plants, not animals, as the secret to a longer life.

Nutritionists are zeroing in on healthy, whole foods that come mainly from plants, not animals, as the secret to a longer life.
with wind/Flickr
  • Low-carb diets like the ketogenic diet are popular strategies for rapid weight loss and appetite control.
  • Keto diets require eaters to essentially forgo all carbohydrates and fuel up on fats and limited amounts of proteins instead.
  • Because sugar is a carb, many keto dieters drastically reduce their sugar intake – but they eliminate healthier carbs too.
  • Nutritionists are starting to notice that people who live the longest tend to incorporate more plant-based foods, including some fiber-rich carbs, into their diets.
  • It’s another reminder that focusing on healthy, plant-based, whole foods is a better long-term strategy than dieting.

Scientists and dietitians are starting to agree on a recipe for a long, healthy life. It’s not sexy, and it doesn’t involve fancy pills or pricey diet potions.

Fill your plate with plants. Include vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats, and legumes. Don’t include a lot of meat, milk, or highly processed foods that a gardener or farmer wouldn’t recognize.

“There’s absolutely nothing more important for our health than what we eat each and every day,” Sara Seidelmann, a cardiologist and nutrition researcher at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, told Business Insider.

Seidelmann recently published a massive, blockbuster global study of the eating patterns of more than 447,000 people around the world. What she discovered – and what is probably not a huge surprise – is that no matter where you live or what your daily diet is like, banning entire food groups and thinking you can cheat your way into good health might work for a while, but it could also send you into an early grave.

The popular ketogenic diet, which involves strictly limiting carbs to less than 50 grams a day (that’s no more than two apples’ worth) and subsisting primarily on high-fat foods, is one of those restrictive diets that could have harmful long-term consequences.

Other low-carb weight-loss diets that fall into this category include paleo, Atkins, Dukan, and Whole 30. Nutrition experts say that besides their potential for harm, these popular diets are really hard to follow.

[Read More: The keto diet could make certain cancer treatments more effective in mice, a study found – and a human trial is moving forward]

Some benefits of going keto are difficult to dispute. Following a high-fat, low-carb diet can be a solid strategy for rapid weight loss and blood-sugar control. The keto diet can also be great for children with tough-to-control epileptic seizures. For decades, people have seen stellar results managing those conditions on a keto diet with the help and guidance of professionals.

But there’s some limited evidence that going low-carb might also lead people to become less tolerant of glucose and develop diabetes, though more research is needed.

What we do know, based on carefully conducted laboratory testing of overweight men, is that going keto probably doesn’t help burn more body fat than a regular regimen. Instead, it forces people to dramatically curb their sugar intake (remember, sugar is 100% carbohydrate) and kick processed foods to the curb. Those are both good habits for overall health and blood-sugar levels, and they can help reduce your likelihood of developing cancer.

But like taking aspirin, eating a special high-fat, low-carb diet probably shouldn’t be an everyday habit for otherwise healthy people. Our bodies simply aren’t designed to fuel up on fats, unless we’re literally starving. Even Josh Axe, a keto evangelist, has said it’s not a diet that should be followed for more than a few months at a time.

Finally, low-carb diets make it easy to neglect key nutrients like magnesium, calcium, and potassium that can be plentiful on less restrictive diets with fresh, high-carb foods like beans, bananas, and oats.

More studies suggest that people who eat whole, nutrient-rich foods live the longest and have a lower risk of cancer



More research that backs up Seidelmann’s was presented in August at the European Society of Cardiology Congress.

Researchers who presented at that conference studied the self-reported eating patterns of nearly 25,000 people in the US and compared their results with studies involving more than 447,500 people. Again, they found that those who ate a moderate amount of carbohydrates were more likely to live longer than either low-carb or high-carb dieters.

“Our study suggests that in the long-term, [low-carb diets] are linked with an increased risk of death from any cause, and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer,” Maciej Banach, a professor at the Medical University of Lodz in Poland who helped write the study, said in a release.

A third study published this week in the journal PLOS Medicine that surveyed the eating habits of 471,495 Europeans over 22 years found that people whose diets had lower “nutritional quality” (i.e., fewer fresh vegetables, legumes, and nuts) were more likely to develop some of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer, including colon, stomach, lung, liver, and breast cancers.

[Read More: Silicon Valley’s favorite diet can lead to kidney trouble – here’s how to go keto without getting sick]

Basically, we’re learning there’s no shortcut to healthy eating

It can be tricky calculating the precise kind of diet that leads to a long life. Part of the problem is that (thankfully) we don’t live our lives in highly controlled laboratory conditions. Until that terrifying day arrives and we all become well-studied lab rats, we have to rely on long-term observational data, usually in the form of surveys, to know more about which diets are the best long-term plans.

In study after study, survey data from around the world has shown that people who stick to limited amounts of meats, dairy, and processed foods while fueling up on fiber-rich plant-based foods including vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and, yes, even carb-heavy beans have some of the best health outcomes. Seidelmann describes their diets as being rich in “whole foods.”

“They were not processed,” she said of the diets of people in her study who lived the longest. These people would consume whole-grain rice, not white varieties. They’d eat plants like fruits and vegetables, not more-processed versions like fruit juice or smoothies.

“You have the intact fiber; you have a lot more nutrients,” Seidelmann said.

Fiber isn’t just good for keeping your gut moving – scientists feeding diets rich in fiber to mice are discovering that the carbs, which can’t be absorbed by the body, can help protect aging brains from some of the damaging chemicals associated with Alzheimer’s and reduce inflammation in the gut. They’re confident that the health benefits of eating more fiber extend to humans too.

But a plant-based regimen with lots of fiber can be tricky to maintain on a low-carb diet, because some of the highest-fiber foods are also high in carbs, such as savory beans, crunchy peas, and sweet fruits.

“It is not a common pattern to eat very low-carb, strictly plant-based,” Seidelmann said. “At least in the Western world, it tends to be more animal-based. That just is what it is.”

People on low-carb diets often turn to more butter and meat for sustenance, which can increase blood pressure and, in the case of processed meats, contribute to cancer. Meat and dairy can also contribute to inflammation in the body, which can help cancerous tumors form and grow.

The new scientific findings all support what parents, trainers, and coaches have been saying for years: eat less junk, and continue to be skeptical of the latest miracle diet, be it keto or any other passing fad.

Silicon Valley’s favorite high-fat diet is beloved by everyone from venture capitalists to LeBron James — here’s how it works

Silicon Valley’s favorite high-fat diet is beloved by everyone from venture capitalists to LeBron James — here’s how it works

Plenty of avocados, eggs, and butter are all allowed on the trendy keto diet. But forget about sugar.

Plenty of avocados, eggs, and butter are all allowed on the trendy keto diet. But forget about sugar.
Alpha on Flickr
  • The keto diet is one of the trendiest diets around, but it was originally developed to help children with epilepsy suffer fewer seizures.
  • It kicks the body into a natural fat-burning mode, called ketosis, by starving a person’s system of carbs and sugars, which are typically the first fuels we burn.
  • Some people say being in ketosis helps them focus and decreases their appetite, while trimming belly fat.
  • Anyone who wants to try going keto should consult their physician first.
  • More research is needed on the long-term effects of the high-fat diet for the general public.

Dieters from Silicon Valley to the Hollywood hills are convinced the trendy keto diet is nature’s miracle plan for the body and the brain.

The high-fat regimen has become the go-to eating plan for celebrities like Halle Berry and the Kardashians, Silicon Valley tech workers, venture capitalists, and sports stars like LeBron James. Fans of the diet believe it can burn off belly fat, tamp down hunger, and increase energy, all while allowing them to gobble up more fatty and oily foods.

The diet relies on a natural fat-burning state called ketosis. It’s the same process that happens automatically when people starve.

In ketosis, the body switches from its default mode – burning carbs and sugars for fuel first – and begins forcing itself into breaking down fatty acids for functioning. Entering ketosis usually takes at least a few days.

Doctor Priyanka Wali previously told Business Insider that most people use up leftover glycogen stores in about five days, and experts agree it takes at least one to three months to see and feel all the benefits of the restrictive plan.

The keto diet wasn’t originally developed for weight loss. Physicians started prescribing the diet in the 1920s to help with tough-to-control epileptic seizures that weren’t responsive to other drugs. The diet can significantly reduce the instance of seizures in children, and in some cases, stops them completely. It can also help control blood glucose levels in adults with Type 2 diabetes.

Read more: Silicon Valley’s favorite diet can lead to kidney trouble – here’s how to go keto without getting sick

Many keto fans who don’t have epilepsy or diabetes report feeling sharper and more energetic on the diet. Some competitive athletes are also convinced that following a keto plan also helps them perform. Ultra-marathoner Zach Bitter, the world record holder for the longest distance run in 12 hours, says going keto most of the time helps him speed into record-breaking athletic performances.

The US military’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) also poured $10 million into developing a ketone ester drink that generates energy from ketones, hoping to one day give its soldiers on the battlefield an extra edge both physically and mentally. The drink is on the market now for performance athletes.

But research on the keto diet for athletes is still mixed: some studies suggest that relying on fat can actually hurt an athlete’s performance. Large-scale studies are needed to know for sure.

Keto by the numbers

One of the trickiest things about the keto diet is all the careful counting it requires.

Dietitian Kristin Kirkpatrick at the Cleveland Clinic suggests people going keto should aim to get 70% to 80% of their calories from fat, with less than 10% from carbohydrates. To that end, most keto dieters try to keep daily carb intake between 20 to 50 grams.

Considering there are roughly six grams of carbohydrates in a single medium-sized carrot or a serving of unsweetened Greek yogurt, keto meal planning requires a hefty dose of forethought. It’s not as simple as swapping a slice of morning toast for a few strips of bacon.

Since going keto can get complicated in a hurry, one Redditor even created a handy keto food pyramid that he encourages people on the keto diet to print out and put on their fridge.

Here’s what’s safe to include on a keto diet


Africa Studio/Shutterstock
  • Meat (pretty much any kind, including poultry and red meat.)
  • Fish.
  • Leafy greens.
  • Eggs, including the cholesterol-rich yolks.
  • Cheese.
  • Oils, especially those containing healthy mono and polyunsaturated fats (like olive oil). This is critical because relying too much on more saturated fats from dairy and meat can cause digestion issues and hurt your heart.
  • Avocados, another great source of monounsaturated fats.
  • Nuts and seeds.
  • Cauliflower is a keto-friendly veggie that is low in carbs and high in dietary fiber. Many keto dieters use it as a substitute for bread, pasta, and crusts.
  • Berries, especially blackberries and raspberries.
  • Heavy cream.
  • Lots of water and other unsweetened drinks to stay hydrated. Tea and coffee are both fine.
  • There might even be a place for dark chocolate on the keto diet. Most people suggest sticking to cacao concentrations higher than 70% to 80%. Lower concentrations are too carb-loaded.

What to avoid on the keto diet


  • Sugar. (Duh. This is all carbs.)
  • Other carbohydrates like bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, and wheat-based flour. (There’s one big caveat to this rule, however, which we’ll dive into below.)
  • Anything made with corn, especially high fructose corn syrup and other sweeteners.
  • Legumes like chickpeas and beans of all kinds. These nutrient-rich foods are high in belly-filling protein and fiber, but the idea with ketosis is to rely more on fat for fuel. Many keto dieters limit their protein intake to around 10% to 15% of a day’s calories, which means that a single cup of black beans could put you in range of a daily limit. Besides, that cup of black beans will also serve up a hefty dose of carbs.
  • Most fruits. A single apple could put you over your carb count for the entire day. Check the nutrition facts before you indulge in fresh fruit.
  • Milk. Again, too high carb. A cup of whole milk has 12 grams, while the same amount of whipping cream has less than eight.

While it might seem tough to limit carbohydrate intake this strictly, there’s one important loophole to keep in mind. Because some carbs come from dietary fiber, which the body doesn’t break down and absorb, keto dieters can subtract those from their daily count.

This number is called net carbs, and it’s a better measure of how many carbohydrates you’re ingesting. For example, while a medium carrot has six grams of carbs, about 1.7 of them are dietary fiber, making chewing up a carrot a net carb intake of just over 4g. Likewise, more than 75% of the carbs in spinach are fiber, making it a relatively safe choice for keto-ers. Kirkpatrick suggests dieters limit their net carb intake to 25 grams a day.

Like any restrictive diet, it’s hard to get a balanced plate of all the vitamins and minerals your body needs to stay healthy on a keto plan, so you might also have to supplement with things like extra calcium, potassium, and magnesium. The keto diet is not doctor recommended for pregnant women, people with liver and kidney problems, or anyone prone to gout.

Whatever your goals, it’s essential to talk with a professional dietitian or doctor before embarking on the diet.

Silicon Valley’s favorite diet can lead to kidney trouble — here’s how to go keto without getting sick

Silicon Valley’s favorite diet can lead to kidney trouble — here’s how to go keto without getting sick

The keto diet lets people eat lots of fat but very few carbohydrates.

The keto diet lets people eat lots of fat but very few carbohydrates.
  • The keto diet is a popular strategy for rapid weight loss and can help with certain medical conditions like seizures and Type 2 diabetes.
  • But kidney doctors say that if you’re not careful, it can be a recipe for kidney stones and other health concerns.
  • It’s not necessarily the diet itself that’s bad, but the way some people approach it.
  • Make sure you’re staying hydrated, and keep your intake of meats in check.

The keto diet, at its essence, is rather straightforward: stop eating carbs, munch on more fat.

It is a high-fat, low-sugar weight-loss strategy that forces the body into its natural starvation mode, causing it to rely on fat for fuel instead of on sugars and carbohydrates – typically what our bodies like to burn through first.

Some people say it lifts mental fog while slimming their waistlines. Different versions of the plan have picked up a string of celebrity followers, from Kim Kardashian West to LeBron James. The diet is especially popular among Silicon Valley tech workers, who see it as a path to better performance and reduced appetite, albeit with a side of bad breath.

But while decades of research suggest that a keto regimen can treat epileptic seizures and control blood glucose levels in people with Type 2 diabetes, there hasn’t been much study yet of what the diet can do for a wider population.

If keto dieters aren’t careful, they can quickly become dehydrated, ramping up the amount of protein and uric acid in their body to dangerous levels. The diet itself has not been linked to an increase (or decrease) in kidney stone diagnosis rates, but some doctors say they’re already seeing a shift as more of their patients go keto.

[Our reporter spent two months on the keto diet. Here’s what it was like]

Dr. Koushik Shaw, a urologist at the Austin Urology Institute, told a local Fox affiliate he had started noticing a worrisome trend.

“I’ve seen a huge spike in the number of kidney stones that we see,” Shaw said, adding that he hadn’t seen an uptick quite like this before in his 14 years of practice.

“A lot of it I attribute to a lot of these high-protein, low-carb, keto-type diets,” he said.

He hypothesized that many of his patients were probably eating more meat and fish than they used to, something that can increase calcium and uric acid levels and acidify their urine.

Keto dieters can eat meat, fish, butter, and cheese.

Keto dieters can eat meat, fish, butter, and cheese.
Flickr / @agentcikay

“All of these things can contribute to a higher rate of kidney stones,” he said.

Higher levels of uric acid in the body can also lead to other health problems, like gout, which can happen when uric acid builds up in the body, “forming sharp, needlelike urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling,” according to the Mayo Clinic.

Other doctors aren’t sure that the keto diet is the true culprit behind the kidney stones.

“Some of the problem might lie in the way that people interpret the keto diet,” Dr. Thomas Chi, a urologist at The University of California, San Francisco, told Business Insider.

He said a combination of “tons and tons of meat” and not enough water could lead to kidney stones.

And Chi said that while he hadn’t noticed any kind of dramatic uptick in kidney stone patients on keto plans, he had seen a few extreme cases of stones in keto dieters.

“While that’s a pretty rare instance,” he said, “it may be driven not necessarily by the fact that you’re having low carbs and higher fat but that you’re subbing in other things,” like more meat.

Fatty keto options like butter and meat can increase your blood pressure, while a higher protein intake can put added stress on kidneys, because it adds more acid to them and messes with the body’s balance of calcium.

Dietitians recommend anyone going on the keto diet consult with their doctor to discuss whether it’s the right choice for their body type and medical history, as well as brainstorm the best things to eat on the plan to stay healthy.

The doctor-recommended way to go keto

Chi said that with so many patients telling him they’re having success losing weight and feeling good on the diet, he didn’t want to discourage a helpful-eating shift.

“I generally tell people, ‘Everything in moderation,’” he said. “We try to take a pragmatic approach.”

He recommends his patients stay well hydrated and don’t overdo it on the meat.

Lemon water

Gayvoronskaya Yana/Shutterstock

Shaw said: “The weight loss is great and lower carbohydrates are great. But you have to balance that with a high fluid intake so you can wash some of the metabolic products out.”

Something that can help is adding lemon to water, Shaw said, because the citrate in the lemon keeps calcium molecules from sticking together.

Children on the keto diet to help control seizures are sometimes given oral potassium citrate tablets, which can both help decrease the number of stones they develop and prolong the time it takes stones to form.

So while there’s no clear evidence that a keto diet directly causes more kidney stones, it’s a good idea to check whether you’re at an increased risk for developing stones before you go keto.

I tried Silicon Valley’s favorite diet using a meal-replacing keto shake — here’s the verdict

I tried Silicon Valley’s favorite diet using a meal-replacing keto shake — here’s the verdict

Melia Robinson/Business Insider

For years, Silicon Valley has tried to engineer methods for living better, longer and easier, with mixed results.

Some have even opted out of real food altogether, instead relying on products like Soylent – a bland but nutrient rich liquid.

But for those looking to not just simplify their eating, but also lose weight and curb their appetite, the ketogenic diet (“keto” for those in the know) has become something of a cult-favorite eating plan, even attracting the likes of the Kardashian sisters and LeBron James.

People credit the fat-fueled diet craze with helping them lose weight and stay full, because it turns on the same metabolism mode (called “ketosis”) triggered by starvation. It moves the body into a fat-store-burning state, instead of relying on carbohydrates for energy.

But as I recently discovered, the keto diet is not easy to follow.

It’s true that by sticking to a low-carb, high-fat routine you’re allowed to eat some traditional diet no-no’s like bacon, eggs, butter, and plenty of creamy salad dressing. However, keto dieters are limited in what else they can eat: Not too many carrots, watch the berry intake, and forget about quinoa.

Ketolent (though not the same brand as Soylent) theoretically takes all the work out of the keto diet, with a ready-to-mix shake. When I found out about the product, I thought it was worth a try.

I had no idea what kind of wild ride I was about to endure.

The recipe for Ketolent was developed by 35-year-old Ted Tieken, who’s been on the keto eating plan since 2014. Tieken says the high-fat diet has turned around his chronic pain, left him more energized, and helped him lose 35 pounds.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

“When I first started making the shakes, I loved that I didn’t have to worry about what to eat for lunch and I could focus on everything else going on in my life,” Tieken told Business Insider in an email.

He started selling Ketolent in December 2014, and now says he averages one shake a day, (sometimes two) and recommends other keto fans with a busy schedule do the same.

“I usually either have one for breakfast and skip lunch, or skip breakfast and have one for lunch,” he said. “Too many calories is a real problem in the modern food system, and we’ve engineered our product to give our customers as much satiety as we can so we can give them control over their calories.”

His company, Sated, says the insta-blend isn’t just designed for time-pressed techies; it’s a for anyone who wants to avoid the difficult work of figuring out what to eat on the keto meal plan.

It costs $90 for a 30-serving supply, which means that a single keto shake comes out to $3 per meal.

The shake consists of Sated-branded powder mixed with water, plus a fatty oil blend. It includes olive, flax, and coconut oils and packs a whopping 280 calories per scoop, providing the heft of my 400 calorie breakfast shake.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

People on the keto diet usually get at least 60% of their calories from fat – nearly double the recommended daily dose.

When prepared as a 12 ounce shake, Ketolent packs 35 grams of fat into my breakfast, providing nearly half of my recommended total fat for the day (45%), and 60% of my daily saturated fat.

It’s not even 10 a.m. They weren’t kidding about this eat more fat business.

The keto diet is focused on healthy fats. But when I’m not slurping shakes, it can be a confusing eating plan, because some healthy foods like carrots and beans are banned.


I freaked out on day one of my new experiment when I realized that I’d inadvertently added half and half into my coffee.

A couple teaspoons added to mellow out my morning cup amounts to more than one additional gram of carbohydrates a day, which is a lot when trying to stay under the rigid 20-grams-of-carbs-a-day version of the keto plan.

And I have to completely ban carbohydrate-rich foods that are staples of a cheap, healthy diet – like beans, quinoa and whole grains.

It all makes me glad I don’t have to worry about what keto-approved food to eat for breakfast, before my brain (and caffeine) kicks in. Instead, I just mix up a Ketolent shake.

The three keto shake ingredients: oil mix, powder, and water, all get poured into a big blender bottle. I fill it up to the 12 ounce mark, and give it a good jostle.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

It’s not the worst breakfast shake I’ve ever had. Ketolent tastes like a slightly-less-sweet version of brownie batter, without any weird, whey-like aftertaste. I was impressed.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

My biggest complaint about the Ketolent shake was its clumpiness.

When I asked the company about this, they said they’re still toying with the consistency. Others on Reddit seemed to agree with my critique.

Sated is not the only startup hoping to court the keto crowd. Other companies, like Ample, offer single-serve powders that come in ready-to-blend plastic bottles.

Ample Foods

The meal plans are taking off with people who think they have better things to do than eat: another popular meal replacement shake, Bear Squeeze, broke a food campaign record on crowdfunding site Indiegogo. The company bills itself as creator of “the world’s healthiest keto meal shake,” and it raised over $65,000 for the new beverage on day one.

My first day on the diet, I couldn’t last until lunch on the shake. Snack time! How about a nice juicy apple and a little cheese, right? Wrong.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

Like carrots, apples are too sugar- and carb-loaded to be a part of this eating plan. A single red apple, with 25 grams of carbs inside, is a major no-no this week.

Guess it’s going to be a lot of black coffee, cheese and fatty nuts (minus the cashews – also too many carbs) to tide me over for the next four days.

Besides breakfast shakes, avocado and chicken lunches, fish, and black coffee will help get me through until dinnertime the rest of this week. At least, I hope so.

Fortunately, salads are still allowed on the keto plan. Normally, I go light on salad dressing, but not tonight.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

I know that leafy greens like kale and arugula are welcome on a keto diet, and meats and nuts are OK, but I wasn’t sure about tomatoes. I quickly Googled and found out they’re alright in moderation.

But it seemed crazy that I had to Google every suspect salad ingredient. That’s another point for the Ketolent shake, which I don’t have to worry about scrutinizing for hidden carbs or sugars every time I take a sip.

One other potential keto slip-up that I didn’t even consider until I started munching on the salad: Canola oil.

Canola oil is too inflammatory and processed to be allowed, keto followers say. But Harvard nutritionists suggest canola oil is a better choice for your heart than saturated fats (which are darlings of the keto diet), because it lowers “bad” LDL cholesterol and heart disease risk when compared to butter and beef fat.

Another day when I had turkey and cucumber pinwheel rolls for lunch I worried that I might have messed up, because they were sandwiched with a processed, bright yellow cheese.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

Keto followers often choose high-fat unprocessed cheeses and meats, because processed foods can pack so many additives. A slice of processed cheese has more than two grams of carbs and 1.4 grams of sugar, so it’s not an ideal choice for ketoers.

Ketolent’s shake, which is built on a base of milk protein isolate (like so many meal replacement shakes) is also a processed food. It includes a sucralose sweetener, the thickener guar gum, plus more than a dozen other ingredients.

Because I have a raging sweet tooth, I often scarfed down a little handful of blackberries for dessert, or chased dinner with some dark chocolate.

Thomson Reuters

While apples are sugary off-limits treats for strict keto-ers, a handful of blackberries has less than five grams of sugar and fewer than 10 grams of carbs.

It’s a splurge if I’m aiming to stay under 20 total grams of carbs a day, but it’s doable.

I also learned that very dark chocolate (like, 85%) is alright, because it has very little sugar. The good news was I wasn’t craving sweets as often as I normally do. I knew they were off-limits for a few days, and that was fine. Plus, my breakfasts of Ketolent were always chocolatey.

The great thing about the plan is that it made me drink a ton of water. I was a tad thirstier than usual, but I also downed copious amounts of H2O because I was worried about the health of my kidneys.

r. nial bradshaw/Flickr

The keto diet is designed to be high-fat, but keto dieters can also take in a lot of protein on the plan.

The Ketolent shake has 18 grams per serving, while other staples of the diet, like meats, fish and cheese also pack a protein punch. Because high-protein diets can put extra stress on kidneys, I made an effort to guzzle more water than usual the week I tried to go keto. It wasn’t hard to do; I was craving more water anyway.

Some keto dieters complain of lower back pain, which is another sign that their kidneys might not be doing well. I didn’t want to risk it.

If I learned one thing over the course of this week, it was this simple truth: sugar was hiding everywhere in my diet. I had to keep checking every label to make sure I wasn’t getting too much (when I wasn’t drinking meal shakes).

Gene Kim

Even my full-fat plain yogurt had 6 grams. Ugh.

While this was a short-term experiment spanning just four days, I lost a few pounds, and also weaned myself off some sweet routines.


By day three, I was beginning to wonder if the bottom of my belly was looking a little paunchy from all that fat.

But clearly that was my imagination, because the scale said I’d lost about three pounds since this experiment began.

Given that this was a short-term test, it’s entirely possible most of that was water weight.

Not all the results were pretty.

Gene Kim

My number one complaint: I was consistently paranoid about my breath.

Ketosis prompts the liver to turn fat into three different kinds of ketone body molecules. One of these is called acetone, and it is released in urine and through the lungs. The result is keto breath. People say it can be kind of like a sweet nail polish remover smell, but I was just worried that my breath was bad.

Toothpaste maker Colgate suggests keto dieters chew sugar-free gum and add natural breath fresheners like cinnamon and mint into their tea. Instead, I just tried to keep my distance when I spoke to people.

Sometimes I also felt like I had a sore throat.

Throat Scope

People on the diet often complain of a “keto flu” that can kick in in the first week of this diet, when the body is switching from burning carbs to fat. I felt nauseous and dizzy on more than one occasion, and worried I was getting sick because of my sore throat. It usually went away after about an hour or two.

Final complaint: my skin was an oily wreck on this plan.


By day two, my cheeks were breaking out in a way they haven’t since high school. Apparently, all this extra fat I was eating was taking my skin on a field trip back to puberty.

By the fourth day, I was ready to call it quits. It was time to find out: did I enter ketosis, or not? There were certainly some compelling signs I was in that starvation-like metabolic state where the body starts relying on fat for fuel.

Hilary Brueck/Business Insider

According to this urine test, I was in a “moderate” state of ketosis.

It’s important to note that the test strip I used only tracks the presence of ketone bodies excreted in urine. Many keto-ers argue this is a useless measurement, because it isn’t as accurate or immediate a measure of ketosis as a blood ketone monitor.

While it’s true that a urine test strip only measures the kinds of ketones that are excreted in the urine, and is not direct evidence of a keto metabolic state, it is nonetheless a rough indicator that in the not-so-distant past, my liver was likely producing ketones.

People who’ve adapted to the keto diet over weeks at a time may no longer excrete very many ketone bodies in their urine, but after just a few days on the diet, it’s a promising sign. Still, it’s not a sure bet.

Most people who are strictly following a keto diet can be pretty confident they’re in ketosis after three to four days. But the exact amount of time depends on a host of factors, including what you eating and how active you are.

I was glad when the keto experiment was over. While the diet clearly has many fervent followers, some experts worry about possible long-term effects.

Chris Snyder

The keto diet is a proven treatment for tough-to-control epileptic seizures in children, and people with type-2 diabetes who are trying to lose weight and improve their blood sugar can also benefit from the plan.

But that doesn’t mean everyone should go keto. Kinesiologist Edward Weiss worries that people without serious health conditions who are trying the plan might be pumping their bodies full of dangerous acid, and avoiding some of the “healthiest foods we know of,” like fresh veggies and legumes.

“What’s sort of scary is that [the keto diet] is an experiment that the population is doing on itself,” he told Business Insider in May. “No drug company would get away with introducing a drug in the population without thorough research.”

People following a keto plan may need to supplement their diet with more vitamins, and no one who’s pregnant, has chronic kidney disease, or is prone to gouty arthritis should try it.

Even though keto fans argue that it takes weeks to reap the benefits of this diet, like better focus and less fatigue, a four-day trial was enough for me.


I went home, put a slice of cheese on one formerly-forbidden cracker, and poured myself a glass of carbohydrate-laden wine, with no regrets.

I’d never want to do this project long-term, but it was nice to eliminate all the choices and decisions around food for a bit, even if it made me second-guess nearly everything I put in my mouth.

Except, of course, that Ketolent shake.

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