- Love leads to biological changes that have been observed in scientific research.
- Being in love can reduce stress, relieve pain, and make you happier.
- Here are seven ways your body and brain change when you fall in love.
Have you ever looked at your partner lovingly and felt your heart flutter, palms sweat, or mood instantly get better?
That’s because falling in love actually changes what happens in your body – for the better. When in love, neurochemicals like dopamine and oxytocin flood our brains in areas associated with pleasure and rewards, producing physical and psychological responses like less perceived pain, an addictive dependence, and a stronger desire for sex with your partner.
Cuddling, hugging, and kissing the one you love can instantly reduce stress and increase feelings of calm, trust, and security thanks to oxytocin, while your mood improves as a result of your reward center flooding with dopamine.
Here are seven ways your body and brain change when you fall in love.
Being in love can lower your blood pressure.
- Married couples have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Elevated blood pressure, or hypertension, is a dangerous condition that puts your body atincreased riskfor heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. Medication and lifestyle changes like getting exercise and eating healthier cancontrol or reduce hypertension, but research has also suggested that being in love can serve as a a natural way to reduce blood-pressure levels.
A 2007 study published by the US Department of Health Serviceslooked at the relationship between marriage, physical health, and longevity, and found that married couples have lower blood pressure and a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease.
In a an analysis of cardiovascular disease risk, the American College of Cardiology looked at 3.5 million participants who were single, divorced, or widowed. They found that married couples under 50 years old tended to have a 12% lower risk of vascular disease. Married people between the ages of 51 and 60 had a 7% lower risk for disease than their unmarried counterparts.
You may feel more or less stressed than usual, depending on the stage of your relationship.
- WAYHOME studio/Shutterstock
Falling for someone may be stressful in the beginning – there’s uncertainty about whether they feel the same way, the possibility of rejection, and anxiety about when to say those three big words.
The initial stages of falling in love increase levels of cortisol, a hormone associated with stress, in new couples, according to a smallstudy published in 2004. However, when the participants were tested 12 to 24 months later, their cortisol levels had returned to normal.
Though love can be stressful for some – especially in the early stages – it can potentially lower stress in the long run. A study published in 2005 inNeuroendocrinology Lettersexamined the neurobiology of those in love and found an association between people’s stress response systems, known as the HPA axis activation, and the development of social attachment. The results suggest that forming a bond with your partner could help bring about physiological changes that reduce levels of anxiety.
You feel more attached and safe.
- Hugging and kissing makes you feels calm and secure.
- Olesya Kuprina/Shutterstock
One reason why you feel less stressed may be because being in love makes you feel safe and develop trust towards your loved one.
Oxytocin, a hormone released through physical contact likehugging,kissing, and sex, deepens feelings of attachment towards your partner and produces sensations of contentment, calmness, and security, according to aHarvard Medical School report.
Oxytocin also plays a role insocial bonding, maternal instinct and reproduction, andsexual pleasure. The “love hormone” substantially increases social attachment and trust among partners, according to a study published inNature.
You get “butterflies” in your stomach.
- Your brain activates the vagus nerve, which is connected from the brain to your gut.
- Motortion Films/Shutterstock
Have you ever felt your heartbeat speed up, palms sweat, or stomach churn (in a good way) at the sight or thought of someone you love?
When in love, cortisol levels increase and the body goes into fight-or-flight mode.
“Your limbic or emotional brain activates the vagus nerve that goes from the brain to your gut,”Dr. Daniel Amen, psychiatrist and neuroscientist, toldNBC News. “When you get nervous, or when you get excited (as I explain to my patients, it’s the same feeling, but it depends on your interpretation of it) this nerve is stimulated that activates the gut.”
You become happier.
- Dopamine is released, activating the brain’s pleasure center.
Being in love releasesdopamine, a neurotransmitter that controls the brain’s reward and pleasure center, which makes couples feel happy around each other.
In 2005, astudy published inThe Journal of Comparative Neurologyscanned 2,500 brain images of 17 individuals who self-identified as being in love. Researchers found that participants who looked at a photo of a person they romantically loved showed brain activity in two areas highly associated with dopamine: the caudate nucleus and ventral tegmental area.
You feel less pain.
- Love alters your mood and impacts your experience of pain.
Being in love has been shown to have pain-reducing qualities, although most doctors wouldn’t recommend relying solely on love after, say, a serious surgery or injury.
A 2010study published in the journal PLoS ONEtook fMRI scans of participants in new romantic relationships. The researchers found that people who viewed images of romantic partners had increased activity in several reward-processing regions in the brain, suggesting that love (and distraction) may reduce the experience of pain.
“When people are in this passionate, all-consuming phase of love, there are significant alterations in their mood that are impacting their experience of pain,”Dr. Sean Mackey,senior author of the study, toldStanford Medicine News Center.
You can feel addicted.
- Neurochemicals in the brain give you a rush similar to addictive drugs.
- Viacheslav Boiko/Shutterstock
Like addictive drugs that light up our pleasure centers and keep people coming back for more, love can be addictive in its own way.
Scientists have observed overlapping neurochemical responses in the same areas of the brain among people experiencing drug addiction and love. A 2017 study published in the journal Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology reviewed research about the relationship between addiction and love. The authors suggested that love can be addictive because it’s a need that can be temporarily satisfied but can become very distracting if it’s not fulfilled for a long period of time. (Official medical classification guides do not include love as an addiction, however.)
Some of these feelings may have to do with sex – sexual activity, orgasms, and some drugs all release dopamine in an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens. An orgasm’s rush of oxytocin and serotonin, along with muscular relaxation, can leave you craving more. That’s why it might feel like engaging in sexual activity can give you a rush.
- Manipulative people are masters of smoke and mirrors.
- Andrey_Popov / Shutterstock
Manipulative people can be found in every walk of life. You might meet them at work where they take credit for your achievements, or in social situations where they are controlling, demanding, and even abusive.
Knowing the right words to deal with these people can give you the strength to stand up to them or walk away. In the cases of romantic relationships, manipulation is probably a sign of an abusive relationship, so the best thing to do is to run fast and far away.
Once equipped with the terms, it can be easier to see manipulative people for who they really are, and you can gain the strength to walk away.
Here are 9 phrases you should know if you think someone is manipulating you, and what they mean.
- Manipulative people always have an eye on their victim.
- OlegKovalevichh / Shutterstock
In the first stages of a romantic relationship, it’s normal to feel butterflies, and want to know what your new partner is doing all the time. However, if the person you’re starting to be intimate with is manipulative then their affection and attention could be love bombing.
Lisa Aronson Fontes is a psychology researcher at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and author of “Invisible Chains: Overcoming Coercive Control in Your Intimate Relationship.” She told Business Insider that if your boyfriend or girlfriend wants to be in constant contact with you, it could be a warning sign. In fact, constant texts and phone calls can be a form of stalking.
Not replying to the barrage of messages may end with you being on the receiving end of your partner’s wrath, which is a huge red flag. You deserve your space, and anyone worth your time will know and respect this.
2. Object constancy
- They don’t have any empathy.
Everybody falls out sometimes, especially in romantic relationships. However, the level to which manipulative people like narcissists get angry with their significant others is beyond what is acceptable.
Those with personality disorders like narcissism lack something called “object constancy,” which is the ability to keep your positive feelings about someone whilst also being angry, annoyed, or disappointed in them.
When they hurl insults and scream at their partner, narcissists don’t feel any of the affectionate feelings they once had. That’s why they can seem like a completely different person in these moments, like Jekyll and Hyde. Their reaction is so powerful it can make the victim feel as though they must be in the wrong, which means they start altering their behaviour to make their controlling partner happy.
3. Moth to a flame
- They will appear very attractive.
Contrary to popular belief, manipulative people often seek out those who are strong and confident to prey on, because it makes them feel superior. Targeting vulnerable people doesn’t make them feel powerful, so they will often go after you because they see the positives in you – like a moth to a flame.
If someone is manipulating you at work, it’s probably because they see your skills and they want to look like they’re even more skilled than you. In a relationship, they want other people to know that someone as great as you has chosen to be with them. It’s only behind the scenes that they start to bring you down, because that way they can start to break your confidence. Lower self-esteem makes it more likely you’ll stick with a controlling partner, because you may feel like it’s what you deserve.
4. Flipping the script
- All is not what it seems.
- frankie’s / Shutterstock
Manipulative people are masters of smoke and mirrors. If you are their target, they will have intensely studied you, and will know all of your strengths and weaknesses.
These are the tools they need to know how to wind you up. Often, they will also accuse you of the very things they have done themselves. For example, if they have cheated on you, they may accuse you of being unfaithful. If they are constantly cancelling your plans, they might tell you you’re guilty of not giving them any freedom.
Confusing their partner and making them emotional makes manipulative people feel victorious.
Ultimately, to a manipulator, everything is a game. The only way to get out of the game is to leave the relationship and establish no contact. In a work environment, you have to learn to not hold them accountable or to expect apologies. When they learn they can’t rile you up, they will move on.
- Prepare for reality to warp.
- Shutterstock / Antonio Guillem
The term “gaslighting” was coined from the 1944 film “Gaslight” where a man controls and tricks his wife into believing she is losing her mind. Nowadays it is a term to describe how manipulative people gain power over someone else by making them feel like they are going crazy.
Manipulators lie, make things up that never happened, but say things in such a convincing way and with such conviction, that their victims end up believing it is the truth.
It happens slowly, a small lie here and there, so the victim doesn’t see the bigger deceptions coming. It’s like the “frog in the saucepan” analogy – the water in the pan is heated up slowly so the frog doesn’t realise it is starting to boil to death.
- You may live in fear.
- Dusan Petkovic / Shutterstock
Beyond gaslighting is something called “perspecticide.” This happens when the manipulative person has made someone believe so many things that aren’t true, they no longer know what is real.
When this happens in romantic relationships, the victim is effectively a prisoner in their own life, not being allowed to do anything or even think on their own terms. The controlling partner may cut off resources like money, a phone, or transport to make sure the victim cannot do anything for themselves.
Even things like their own beliefs and religion are compromised, because the victim lives in total fear of putting a step out of line all the time.
7. Trauma bonding
- Getting away will be tough.
- Rawpixel.com / Shutterstock
From the outside, people may look into abusive relationships and wonder how the victim stuck around for so long. One of the answers is something called “trauma bonding.”
Manipulative, abusive people tend to be cruel to their partners, and hurl insults at them. They sometimes are also physically violent. However, they didn’t start off this way when they were reeling in their victim.
Manipulators also give their partners intermittent periods of love and compliments to get them to stick around. These moments are given when the partner has “behaved” or has done something right. It’s a way of being conditioned, and the victim gets biologically addicted to the emotional push and pull.
“You have this back and forth, and the body becomes addicted,” said Shannon Thomas, a therapist and author of Healing from Hidden Abuse. “When we’re looking for something that we want, that we once had, which is a connection with somebody, and they are playing cat and mouse where they are pulling it back and forth, then the body really does become dependent on having that approval.”
8. ‘But he didn’t hit me’
- Psychological abuse is just as damaging as physical abuse.
- Hunna / Shutterstock
One of the most worrying things a person can say when they’re in a damaging, toxic relationship is: “but he didn’t hit me.”
Psychological abuse is just as damaging as physical abuse, but it’s harder to identify because there aren’t physical scars. Unfortunately, manipulative people are often aware of this, and they can use this to their advantage. They know physical violence is the breaking point for many people, and so they will abuse and control their partner in every way up until that point.
“When people say, ‘but he didn’t hit me,’ what they often mean is that they would leave if they were hit,” said Lisa Aronson Fontes, a psychology researcher at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “Their partners exert control one thousand ways but may stop short of hitting, if they know that would ‘break’ the relationship.”
- Don’t compromise on your safety.
- kittirat roekburi / Shutterstock
Manipulators do not like losing. If you take a step back, or you leave a relationship with them, they will beg for a second chance if they think they can still gain something from you.
They are likely to give the fight of their life to keep you around. They might tell you how they will change, or how you will never find someone who loves you as much as them. However, all the promises are empty, and it’s not in your best interests to get back with them out of fear.